Case Studies

NextGEM will be validated through the following Case Studies , covering different societal groups, including vulnerable people exposed to different signals (multiple EMF exposure, including 4G and 5G wireless signals)

Case Study 1

Potential effects of indoor levels of RF exposure of vulnerable people on reproduction and development

The COVID-19 pandemic situation has increased the indoor exposure of the general public to the EMF radiated by multiple sources, such as wireless personal communication devices (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth) or other applications (security scanners, smart meters, and medical equipment) in conjunction with the ambient environmental exposure. The effect this EMF exposure to this radiation can have on the health of vulnerable people, such as pregnant women or children has not been studied. In addition, the potential exposure to EMF and other physical or chemical agents has increased concerns regarding fertility and children’s development.

The scope of this Case Study is to investigate potential EMF effects on vulnerable people by analysing the existing literature and by using C. elegans and exposure modelling approaches, to establish possible thresholds for safe/unsafe situations of single and multiple exposures and the potential risk on fertility and children’s development. The outcome of the research will generate the basis for practical guidelines.

Case Study 2

Optimised outdoor urban planning and 5G design architecture and investigations for public awareness on cancer-related health hazards

5G mobile networks are key for enabling not only a wide range of application scenarios but also the effective spreading of the smart city concept. 50 billion devices are foreseen to be globally connected by 2023, with a connection density of up to 1 million devices per km2 spread in different locations, outdoor and indoor, from underground to sky coverage for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications. Moreover, the use of MIMO antennas and higher frequency bands has completely changed the requirements for coverage and management of the network. EMF will only be present when and where it is needed. In parallel to measurements, computations will be performed on simulated as well as real-life scenarios to analyse the effect of MIMO antennas and transmitter positions on field distribution. However, there are concerns that 5G radiation from such antennas might increase the risks of carcinogenesis.


The scope of this Case Study is to assess the urban planning and exposure management for 5G NR location design architecture and to examine the possibility of cell site distribution in an urban environment minimising the exposure and analyse field distribution over the territory due to the use of MIMO antennas. Selected realistic conditions will be tested to investigate biological responses in the presence and absence of other agents (combined exposures).


Case Study 3

Health effects of exposure to mmWave EMF in indoor & outdoor environments

5G mobile networks are expected to empower smart industries of the future by providing massive IoT connectivity, ultra-low latency links with high reliability, as well as high-throughput. To support such connectivity demands, 5G wireless networks will employ mmWave frequency bands. In such scenarios, the EMF exposure in specific locations will be highly dynamic in time and space, based on the user’s data request and spatial movement in a given area. The passive EMF exposure of individuals will then vary considerably compared to 4G/LTE. Users with different demands in the same workplace are exposed to diverse sources of EMF. However, the adoption of mmWave frequency bands in 5G networks, and the use of beam steering antennas, in both indoor and outdoor (e.g., campus, industrial) environments, requires the development of novel measurement devices and deeper analysis to evaluate the potential health risks or symptoms due the directional EMF exposure in high frequencies (FR2, above 26GHz).


The scope of this Case Study is to assess the exposure of 5G signals in the FR2 mmWave bands according to personalised demands in indoor and outdoor environments and investigate the potential biological effects and their mechanisms on Red Blood Cells.